Bihar Economic Survey 2019-20 Summary



  • According to the new series of data on Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP), the growth rate of Bihar’s economy in 2018-19 was 10.53 percent (at constant prices) and 15.01 percent (at current prices), which is higher than the growth rate for the Indian economy.
  • The GSDP of Bihar at current prices was Rs 5,57,490 crore at current prices and Rs 3,94,350 crore at constant (2011-12) prices in 2018-19.
  • The resulting Per Capita GSDP of Bihar was Rs 47,541 at current prices and Rs. 33,629 at constant prices.

Share of various sectors in the GSVA:

  • Primary Sector: 21.3%
    Secondary Sector: 19.7%
  • Tertiary Sector: 59.0%
The three relatively most prosperous districts based on Petrol consumption per thousand persons are:
  1. Patna
  2. Muzaffarpur
  3. Gopalganj
The three most prosperous districts in terms of per capita small savings are —
  1. Patna
  2. Saran
  3. Buxar


    The fiscal deficit was 2.68 percent of GSDP
  • As per the 15th Finance Commission recommendation, the share of Bihar in the total shareable resource pool of the centre has increased from 9.67 percent to 10.06 percent for the year 2020-21.
    In an attempt to improve the efficiency in financial management, the State Government has introduced Comprehensive Financial Management System (CFMS) on April 1, 2019, which will make all financial activities in the state online and paperless.
    In another development in 2018-19, the State Government made it mandatory for all the departments to make all the purchases through the GeM Portal.
  • In 2018-19, the share of social services expenditure in total expenditure increased by two percentage points.
  • The expenditure on three major heads of the social services were — Rs. 28,080 crore (Education, Sports, Art and Culture), Rs. 7318 crore (Health and Family Welfare) and Rs. 15,638 crore (Water Supply, Sanitation, Housing and Urban Development).


  • The contribution of agricultural and allied sectors to the Bihar’s GSVA was 21 percent in 2017-18 and the share of crop sector in the GSVA was 12.1 percent.
  • Cropping intensity was 144 percent in 2017-18.
  • The Government of India has conferred the Krishi Karman Award to the state on 2nd January 2020, for its achievements in production and productivity of Maize and Wheat.
  • Livestock and aquaculture together contributed about 7.1 percent of GSVA in the agriculture sector in Bihar during 2018-19.
  • The State Government is providing subsidy of 90 percent on drip irrigation and 75 percent on sprinkler irrigation.


  • In Bihar, 11 sugar mills are presently operating spread across six districts.


  • The worker population ratio (WPR) for male workers in rural Bihar was 64.0 percent.
  • The WPR for female workers was abysmally low at 3.9 percent in rural Bihar.
  • In Bihar, 55.9 percent males were self-employed in 2017-18.
Major employment-generating industries for working males in Bihar were:
  1. agriculture, forestry and fishing (44.6 percent)
  2. construction (17.1 percent),
  3. wholesale and retail trade, repair of vehicles (12.3 percent), and
  4. manufacturing (9.3 percent).
For female workers, major employment-generating industries were —
  1. agriculture, forestry and fishing (53.6 percent), and
  2. education (25.7 percent).
  • In Bihar, 75 percent of total migration took place due to marriage, compared to 46 percent at the all-India level in 2011. Only 2.9 percent of total migration took place due to work/employment and business.


  • The growth in the transport sector was 11.0 percent during the period 2011-12 to 2018-19.
  • Implementation of road safety measures has ensured that the number of road accidents per lakh population is the lowest in Bihar (9.3) among all major Indian states during 2018.
  • Bihar was the sixth highest state in terms of building additional road length (1,30,799 km), during 2008-2017.
  • Bihar was at the third position among major states of India in 2017 in terms of rail route per thousand of area.
  • Air transport has registered a massive annual growth (35.6 percent) in the state.
  • Presently, the rural tele-density in Bihar is 46 connections per 100 persons. The urban tele-density in Bihar is 149 connections per 100 persons.


  • The projected peak demand for electricity in Bihar was 5300 MW in 2018-19.
  • The peak demand met reached 5139 MW during 2018-19.
  • The per capita consumption of the electricity in the state has risen to 311 kwh in 2018-19.
  • The power capacity availability in the state was 3889 MW in 2018, and increased to 4767 MW in 2019.

The total generation capacity of power as on March 2019 for the state was 4767 MW. Out of this:

  • 82 percent is from coal-based thermal power
  • 11 percent from hydropower, and
  • the balance 7 percent from renewable energy sources


  • In recent years, JEEViKA has received recognition at both national and international forums for its excellent achievements.
  • Satat Jivikoparjan Yojana’ (SJY): The State Government has launched a new scheme, ‘Satat Jivikoparjan Yojana’ (SJY), in August 2018. JEEViKA has been designated as the nodal agency for implementation of SJY, with a budgetary outlay of Rs 840 crore for three years. The objective of this scheme is to provide sustainable income-generating assets to extremely poor households, including those who were traditionally involved in production and sale of country liquor or toddy before the imposition of liquor prohibition in April 2016.


  • In Bihar, the rate of urbanization has been low compared to the all-India level.
  • At one extreme, the rate of urbanization was as high as 43.1 percent in Patna and, on another, it was only 3.5 percent in Banka.
  • Recently, Patna Metro Rail Project, with a total cost of Rs 13,366 crore, has been sanctioned. In this regard, the State Government has already constituted Patna Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. (PMRCL) to construct 31.39 kms of the metro to cover East-West and North-South corridors.


  • The banking infrastructure has increased in the semi-urban areas in Bihar at a higher pace than in the rural and urban areas in Bihar.
  • The Scheduled Commercial Banks (SCB) have the largest presence in the state among all types of banking institutions.
  • With a share of 4.9 percent in 2019, Bihar is at the 10th position in terms of share of branches of the commercial banks


  • Between 2011-12 and 2018-19, the level of Per Capita Development Expenditure (PCDE) in Bihar has grown at 14.2 percent, compared to the national average of 13.3 percent.
  • The expenditure on education in the state increased at an annual rate of 13.8 percent, which is higher than that of the all-India average of 12.8 percent.
  • The expenditure on health also registered an annual growth rate of 20.8 percent, and was higher than that of the all-India average.
  • The life expectancy at birth in Bihar in 2013-17 was 69.2 and 68.6 years for males and females, respectively.
  • There was an increase of 14.8 percentage points in the literacy rate of Bihar which has improved significantly from 47.0 percent in 2001 to 61.8 percent in 2011.
  • However, female literacy rate has been much lower at 51.5 percent compared to the male literacy rate (71.2 percent) in Bihar.


  • Bihar accounts for 11 percent of India’s total child population.
  • The child sex ratio was 935 females per 1000 males.
  • The practice of Child Budgeting started in Bihar in 2013-14, presenting the details of all schemes related to child welfare.


  • During 2018-19, Bihar recorded an annual rainfall of 780 mms.
  • Kishanganj received the highest annual rainfall of 1522 mms., while the lowest rainfall was observed in the district of Jehanabad (403 mms.).
  • Bihar has about 285 wetlands, with a total area of 3992 hectares, accounting for nearly 0.6 percent of the total recorded forest area of the state in 2019.
  • The total forest and tree cover together in Bihar constituted about 9309 sq. kms. in 2019, which is about 9.9 percent of the total geographical area of the state.
  • Jal-Jeevan-Hariyali is a flagship programme of the State Government which is intended to tackle issues relating to climate change and environmental degradation.
  • The Valmiki Tiger Reserve is located in an area of 893.73 sq. kms. in the district of West Champaran, housing the Panthera Tigris.
  • As per the estimates of the National Tiger Conservation Authority, the tiger population in Bihar increased from 8 in 2010 to 31 in 2018.
  • The Vikramshila Gangeya Dolphin Sanctuary, situated in Bhagalpur, provides habitat for the Gangetic Dolphin (Platanista Gangetica), freshwater fishes and turtles.


  • Nearly all the departments of the State Government have been running e-Governance programmes in the state. For example, e-Labharthi provides several e-services like social security pension, disability allowance, payments for dress and reading materials, and scholarship amount, etc.