Bihar is located in the eastern part of the country and is bounded by Himalaya from the north and plateau from the south which are the source of the entire river flowing here. Although, it is an entirely land–locked state but it is very rich in water resources, both the ground and the surface water resources.
Major Rivers in Bihar
The drainage pattern of Bihar is trellis and dentritic due to physical condition.
1. It is the main river of Bihar that enters into the state from Chausa which formed the boundary of Bhojpur and Saran district.
2. Tributaries: Gandak, Bagmati, Kosi, Kali, Sone, Karmanasa and Punpun
3. Mahatama Gandhi Setu was built to connect North Bihar with the rest of Bihar and made part of national highway 19 (NH19).
Ghaghra / Saryu
1. It originates from Nampa of Nepal and enters in Bihar at Gopalgunj and joins River Ganga at Chhapra.
2. It is sacred river for both Hindus and Buddhist.
1. It originates from the north of Dhaulagiri in Tibet near Nepal and enters into the Indian Territory near Treveni town in Nepal.
2. It flows in a southern direction and form boundary between Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. It drains its water in West Chaparan, East Champaran, Muzaffarpur, Gopalgunj, Siwan, Saran and Vaishali district of Bihar.
3. Treveni Canal gets water from Gandak River.
1. It originates at Someshwar Hills and flow parallel to the Gandak River and enters in Bihar from Chautarwa Chaur near Bisambharpur in the district of West Champaran.
2. It flows through West Chamaparan, East Chamapran, Muzaffarpur, Samastipur and Begusarai.
3. It joins River Ganga at Khagaria.
1. It originates from Shivpuri range of hills in Nepal and enters in Bihar at Shorwatia village in Sitamarhi.
2. It flows from Muzaffarpur, Darbhanga and Samastipur.
3. It is perennial river of Bihar. Lalbakia and Lakhendei are its tributaries.
4. It meets Kosi River at Badlaghat.
1. It originates from Mahabharta range of Hills in Nepal near Sindhuliagarhi.
2. It enters in Bihar from Jainagar town of Madhuabani district. Kamala Barrage has been constructed by the State Government near Jainagar town.
3. Dhauri, Soni, Balan and Trisula is the main tributaries.
1. It originates from Sikkim and enters into Bihar from Purnia.
2. It forms in its upper course an important eastward linguistic boundary between the Bengali and Hindi-speaking area.
3. Balason, Ratwa and Kankai are the main tributaries.
4. It joins the Ganga in Nawabgunj district of Bangladesh.
1. It originates from Amarkantak Hills in Madhya Pradesh and joins the Ganga at Maner.
2. Rihand and the North Koel are the main tributaries.
3. Anicut at Dehri and Indrapuri Barrage is built to check the flood.
1. It is known as ‘sorrow of Bihar’.
2. It is also known as ‘Saptakoshi’ for its seven upper tributaries.
3. It enters the Indian Territory near Hanuman Nagar in Nepal and joins the Ganga River near Kursela in Kathihar district.
1. It originates from Hazaribagh Plateau and joins the River Ganga Fatuha.
2. Main tributaries: Dordha, Butane, Madar and Morhar.
3. It originates in Palamu district of Jharkhand and flows through Chatra, Aurangabad, Gaya and Patna districts of the Indian states of Jharkhand and Bihar.
4. River is mentioned in the Vayu and the Padma Puranas in connection with Gaya Mahatmyaas the punah-punah of which Pun-Pun is the conversational form.
1. Niranjana is another name of the river.
2. It is a sacred river for Hindus and Buddhists. As per Hindu belief, pindadan or religious ceremony is performing at the bank of river to the salvation for the dead from the cycle of rebirth.
3. Mohane is the main tributary of the river.
1. It originates from Rohtas Plateau and joins river Ganga near Chausa forming Uttar Pradesh- Bihar border for a long distance.
2. Main tributaries: Durgavati, Chandraprabha, Karunuti, Nadi and Khajuri
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